Friday, January 12, 2018

XFS, nobarrier and the 4.13 Linux kernel


My day
  • nobarrier isn't supported as a mount option for XFS in kernel 4.13.0-26 with Ubuntu 16.04. I assume this isn't limited to Ubuntu. Read this for more detail on the change.
  • write throughput is much worse on my SSD without nobarrier
  • there is no error on the command line when mounting a device that uses the nobarrier option
  • there is an error message in dmesg output for this

There might be two workarounds:
  • switch from XFS to ext4
  • echo "write through" > /sys/block/$device/queue/write_cache

The Story

I have a NUC cluster at home for performance tests with 3 NUC5i3ryh and 3 NUC7i5bnh. I recently replaced the SSD devices in all of them because previous testing wore them out. I use Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and recently upgraded the kernel on some of them to get the fix for Meltdown.

The NUC7i5bnh server has a Samsung 960 EVO SSD that uses NVMe. I use the HWE kernel to make wireless work. The old kernel without the Meltdown fix is 4.8.0-36 and the kernel with the Meltdown fix is 4.13.0-26. Note that with the old kernel I used XFS with the nobarrier option. With the new kernel I assumed I was still getting nobarrier, but I was not. I have since switched from XFS to ext4.

The NUC5i3ryh server has a Samsung 850 EVO SSD that uses SATA. The old kernel without the Meltdown fix is 4.4.0-38 and the kernel with the Meltdown fix is 4.4.0-109. I continue to use XFS on these.

Results sysbench for NUC5i3ryh show not much regression from the Meltdown fix. Results for the NUC7i5bnh show a lot of regression for the write-heavy tests and not much for the read-heavy tests.
  • I started to debug the odd 7i5bnh results and noticed that write IO throughput was much lower for servers with the Meltdown fix using 4.13.0-26. 
  • Then I used sysbench fileio to run IO tests without MySQL and noticed that read IO was fine, but write IO throughput was much worse with the 4.13.0-26 kernel.
  • Then I consulted my local experts, Domas Mituzas and Jens Axboe.
  • Then I noticed the error message in dmesg output

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